According to Mazumdar & Madan 'Caste is a closed class' i.e. As a result of certain factors such as occupational diversification, migration to urban areas, mechanisation of agriculture, boundaries between caste groups are tending to blur or break down. While the hierarchical position of many castes, particularly in the middle ranks, may vary from region to region, there is always a hierarchy. Caste is a closed class. The present form of caste system as a social institution has been shaped by: a.

Ans: Some characteristic of modernisation are :-. Caste is often a basis for new groups even when it does not define their membership. While changes in the caste politics are continuous and regular, the caste system remains intact for all practical purposes. ADVERTISEMENTS: ii. Caste is never a matter of choice. Three institutions, Caste, Tribe and Family are central to Indian Society. 10. You belong to a caste by birth & can't change it later & one has is follow the set rules &

( closed system, allows little change in social position ) caste system determines direction of persons life in 4 ways. His major work Caste, Class and Power: Changing patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village (1966) analyses the change in the caste system in the wake of democracy, land reforms and empowerment of non-Brahmin castes. Relations between castes are governed among other things by the concept of purity and pollution, and generally commensality occurs within the caste. Caste System in India as an Example.

But there is no such thing in class. The caste system is not stagnant and is undergoing changes under the impact of modernization. If caste is getting weak in one aspect it also gets strengthened in other aspects simultaneously with certain additions. In the modern age, many changes happen in the features and functions of caste system. A shift in the social position of large numbers of people do more to changes in society itself than the individual efforts. Caste system sociology definition.

2 Caste System The word caste is derived from the Portuguese casta meaning lineage, breed, or race. One of the prominent features of Indian civilization is its Caste-system. The colonial period. Caste System in the British Period: The various views on caste are based cither on impressionistic understanding or on the scriptural texts. Caste Associations. Class and caste are the form of the social stratification. One of the most significant yet paradoxical changes in the caste system in the contemporary period is that it has tended to become invisible for the upper caste, urban middle and upper classes. Rapid changes that came about in Independent India. In 1500 BC, Aryans arrived in India and disregarded local groups. Start studying Sociology Ch 10 Caste Systems. (ii) Changes in the Caste hierarchy: The caste system is no longer a clearly demarcated system of hierarchically-ordered caste groups. Class and Caste System of SocietyWealth is defined as ability to produce or inherit properties.Prestige refers to honour and style of life. ADVERTISEMENTS:Power means the ability to control over others. These are some of the social changes which Srinivas emphasized on. In theory, every person has a caste, and every caste has a specified place in the hierarchy of all castes. UPSC SOCIOLOGY Paper 2 Part B Social Structure: Caste System: Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille. Associate Professor of Sociology Khejuri College P.O- Baratala, Purba Medinipur West Bengal, India . The English word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word Casta meaning breed, race or kind. one cant change his own caste system by can change the class system & can be a member of many classes at the same time. Three institutions, Caste, Tribe and Family are central to Indian Society. The caste system , created in the Middle Ages has meant that there is a differentiation of the privileges of a person in society , as well as he has done there people who are treated unfairly and lower. 3. Status is inborn and ascribed in Caste System. A child of Brahmin will always be a Brahmin. Related Quotation. Definitions of Caste. The caste system is a social hierarchy in which society is divided into groups. However, many would agree that this assumption has proved wrong. Whereas Class is an open system. Though caste norms in India may have once had a rationale, but these norms are outlived today. Essay # 1. Warriors and priests fought for the leadership role. All the studies show to change in Jajmani system and emerging in inter-caste relationship. Start studying Sociology: Social Stratification. Lines of distinction between varna and caste, and caste and class, have not been clearly drawn. The functions of caste system were broadly affecting three major aspects of social life which is considered below:- Effect on Individuals life Effect on community or society Effect on Social life The effects should be cover in a detailed view to know how and where they affected society as a whole or on an individual level. These rules and principles were so closed and rigid that the lower caste people could not even touch the shadow of the higher caste people. Conclusion: A more recent dilemma has emerged concerning caste politics. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. For this reason the caste system is linked to the domination of some over others.

According to Mazumdar & Madan Caste is a closed class i.e. The Sanskrit word for caste is varna which means colour. Although they make up an interwoven compact and solid structure they are plastic, bending to economic forces. The Brahmins are placed at the top of the hierarchy and are regarded as pure or supreme. CASTE SYSTEM IN INDIA INTRODUCTION Caste system is a phenomenon related to Hinduism in particular. Caste affects the different caste groups in society, each of the caste-based social groups themselves, and also each individual from any of the several caste groups. A caste system is a class structure that is determined by birth. Out of which priests emerged victorious to supreme their power over India. Why is a pure caste system closed?

The caste system , created in the Middle Ages has meant that there is a differentiation of the privileges of a person in society , as well as he has done there people who are treated unfairly and lower. Q.4. Caste systems are closed stratification systems in which people can do little or nothing to change their social standing. Caste and Class in India Recent trends in social stratification Indian official approach to caste Casteless society Vs. reservation in government job and government academic institutions Casteless society Vs. special programmes for advancement of Dalits and backward castes Trends of changes that affect the caste system First, Education has altered the iii. Sanskritization is the societal process through which a lower caste becomes a higher caste. The Indian caste system is one of the most-recognized ones that still exist. A shift in the social position of large numbers of people do more to changes in society itself than the individual efforts. class refers to people based on property, business, occupation i.e. Changes in the restrictions regarding social habits. The sociologists who feel that recent changes are giving way to class than to caste have nothing but a misapprehension. 2. The number of castes increased because of reasons like inter-caste marriage,acceptance of tribes into caste hierarchy, etc. AND CHANGE 1. Indias caste system was formed based on socio-economic factors or ideological factors. ( noun) A stratified system of categorization based on a status conferred at birth ( ascribed status) based on descent, in which individuals do not have mobility due to custom or law. Caste is never a matter of choice.

There were four original functional castes, which followed different occupations, namely the Brahmins (the priestly class), the Kshatriyas (the fighting caste), the Vaisyas (the trading class) and the Sudras (the serfs). Under the impact of certain powerful factors Caste System in undergoing drastic changes in modern India. 5. Even Sanskritisation is unable to change caste. First, caste determines an individuals position in society starting at birth. The religious basis of caste has cramped. People are assigned occupations regardless of their talents, interests, or potential. The most important official effort to collect The caste system comes into being when it becomes an integral part of religious dogma which divides the people into superior and inferior groups with different responsibilities, functions and standards of living." View on Religion, caste and its impact: He emphasized on many topics related to religion and village. (2) The term modernisation has been used to refer to the path of development that Europe and America has taken. The most commonly cited defining features of caste are the following: Caste is determined by birth - a child is "born into" the caste of its parents. For this reason the caste system is linked to the domination of some over others. 60. The caste system in India is a long-standing way of dividing citizens according to their work, or 'karma' in Hindu. The course also discusses the changes that have taken place in the social structure, cultural values and institutions in India. The majority of modern societies are divided into classes. Constitution, law and social change: Link 1 d. Partially true. Caste System in India as an Example. One can never change ones caste, leave it, or choose not to join it. Caste plays various functions in society.

class refers to people based on property, business, occupation i.e. This paper will be exploring the various aspects of the Indian caste system and its effects on India today. Can u change your caste? organisation of village tended to be free from the structure of caste and hence power structure in villages also changes. Changes in the caste system doing colonialisation (i) The British government conducted decennial census from 1881 onwards in which caste based data were collected separately. one cant change his own caste system by can change the class system & can be a member of many classes at the same time. Theories of the Origin of Caste System Origin of the cast system is one of the complicated issues in sociological debates. Caste system functions as the social division of labor except that in principle it allows no mobility. Department of Sociology and social work H. N. B. Garhwal University Srinagar, (A Central University) and caste system focuses on changing patterns of Inter caste relationship in rural or agrarian society. This paper explores the changing facets of the Indian caste system, factors of change, and its impact on Indian socio-political life in These groups determine what labor you can do and your level of spiritual purity. For the purpose of study three main stages in the evolution of caste may be identified. Green revolution and social change: Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture: Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration: Rural labour Migration 1 Migration 2 Migration 3 Migration 4. Caste is hereditary . class refers to people based on property, business, occupation i.e. The 1901 census, under the direction of Herbert Risley, was particularly important as it collected information on the social hierarchy of caste I.e.the position of each caste in the rank order. However, as the economy develops, class-based stratification becomes more essential. The division of society into classes or strata, which form a hierarchy of prestige and power, is an universal feature of social structure. ( noun) A stratified system of categorization based on a status conferred at birth ( ascribed status) based on descent, in which individuals do not have mobility due to custom or law. Extreme views have been expressed about the caste system. Caste system is a unique way of stratifying the According to Mazumdar & Madan Caste is a closed class i.e. 10. c) Discuss the means of liberation according to the Visistadvaita school of Vedanta. The caste system is one of the oldest forms of social stratification and even though it may be prohibited by the law, the political divisions continue to exist in the minds of the people leaving many oppressed. A caste system is one in which people are born into their social standing and will remain in it their whole lives. The institution of caste underwent major changes during the colonial period. There are limits on interaction and behavior with people from another social status. Ans : The most commonly cited rules that the caste system has imposed are as follows: Caste is determined by birth-a child inherits the bom information the caste of its parents. Through the caste system the aboriginal Answer any two of the following questions in about 250 words each: a) Discuss the salient features of Indian philosophy. In this paper mainly focus on the basic concept of caste and class of society and in Indian context the changing trend of the caste system.

There were different customs, traditions, folkways and mores for different castes. The degraded caste or the untouchables have occupied the other end of the hierarchy. The Caste System: Continuities and Changes Singh Swapnil Centre for the Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India In comparative sociology and in common parlance alike, caste has become a central symbol for India, indexing it as fundamentally different from other places as well as expressing its A sense of highness and lowness or superiority and inferiority is associated with this gradation or ranking. Caste system hierarchically divides the society. The caste stratification of the Indian society had its origin in the chaturvarna system. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. On the other hand, socialists say, the differences between human beings have been created by society; hence the society only can remove them. As a result of such socialist thought, caste system is Caste involves a system consisting of many castes arranged in a hierarchy of rank and status. Present status of caste in India is more a product of colonialism than of ancient Indian tradition. Old social practices of imposing restrictions of varied types have dwindled. Start studying Sociology Ch 10 Caste Systems. Before the caste system, India had four groups or divisions already established: the Negrito, Mongoloid, Austroloid and Dravidian. A sense of highness and lowness or superiority and inferiority is associated with this gradation or ranking. Between 500 BC and 500 AD , the caste system became an integral part of the indian social structure. 59. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with ones caste. (3) The process of modernisation leads to secularisation. They formed three groups, namely warriors, priests and farmers. However, in course of time, these [] A caste's position in the hierarchy is maintained by a mixture of these elements. Many aspects of ancient stratification, such as the caste system and feudalism found in India, can be found in modern society. Indias caste system was formed based on socio-economic factors or ideological factors. How the Caste System Affects CitizensMarriages: Most Indian marriages are arranged by parents. Several factors were considered by them for finding the ideal spouse. Education: Public universities have caste-based reservations for students coming from underprivileged backgrounds. Jobs: A significant amount of public sector jobs are allocated based on caste reservation. The British administrators tried to understand the complexities of caste in an effort to leam how to govern the country efficiently. Caste and class systems of stratification are opposite, extreme points on a continuum. According to Dr. Muzumdar, the caste system took its birth after the arrival of Aryans in India. Warriors and priests fought for the leadership role. Social change is an inevitable phenomenon, it occurs with the growth of every society. The caste system today is still existent, but not in its worst form. He has empirically demonstrated that the traditional relationship between caste and power has been radically changed. Although the caste system in India has been officially dismantled, its residual presence in Indian society is deeply embedded.

As has been shown in Srinivas 1996 and Sharma 2002, caste was expected gradually to dissolve and disappear with the onset of modernization. Sociologists use the term status consistency to describe the consistency, or lack thereof, of an individuals rank across these factors. Idea of development planning and mixed economy: Link 1. A Caste System is a social structure which ranks people into various groups based on heredity. AND CHANGE 1. 4. Caste system hierarchically divides the society. Under caste system, society is divided into several small social groups called castes. Although they make up an interwoven compact and solid structure they are plastic, bending to economic forces. What caste are there in Pakistan?1.1 Punjabis.1.2 Pashtuns.1.3 Sindhis.1.4 Saraikis.1.5 Muhajirs.1.6 Baloch.1.7 Kashmiris.1.8 Brahuis. The Indian caste system is one of the most-recognized ones that still exist. membered Village (1976). ( noun) A group and the individual members of a group within a caste. Caste, the rural community, and the joint family have contributed to social and cultural solidarity in India, where differences of race and culture were likely to provoke perpetual conflict. In India caste is popularly known as Jati which comes from the Sanskrit word Jana.

The Rudolphs (1960) commented on the form and functions of caste associations in contemporary India. Main features of caste system. They are mentioned below: (i) Caste in Ancient Age [The period upto 1100 A.D. which is inclusive of Vedic Age, Post- Vedic Age and Puranic Age]. Segmented Division of Society: Castes are well-developed social groups in which membership is determined by birth rather than selection.

The records of Indo Aryan Culture contain its first mention. Some of these efforts took the shape of very methodical and intensive surveys and reports on the customs and manners of various tribes and castes all over the country. True b. Under the A group discussion can be conducted on the following changes within the caste system. (1) Modernisation refers to the process of change brought out by scientific and technological development. The ruling caste frequently plays a significant role in village politics and social life. The society of India is distinguished by caste classification, agrarian structure, diversity of religions, rural urban migration, as well as the refusal to modify traditions. These are sustained and regulated by social institutions and social relationships. Each of these castes is a well developed social group, the membership of which is based on birth. Caste System Meaning. Essay on Changes in the Caste System The caste system which is an integral part of the Indian system has a long standing history of its own. Since membership is based on birth, mobility from one caste to another is impossible. As the developments in political, economic, science and technology come through, the society adapts to these changes. Social stratification systems determine social position based on factors like income, education, and occupation. III. Out of which priests emerged victorious to supreme their power over India. The post vedic period brought a lot of social changes with it such as introduction of buddhism and Jainism.

They formed three groups, namely warriors, priests and farmers. Why is a pure caste system closed? 5) Changes in Caste Structure: In ancient period, the structure of caste was closed and rigid. Ans: The institution of caste underwent major changes during the colonial period. What are the changes that have come into the caste system? ( noun) A group and the individual members of a group within a caste. Concept of Class and its Characteristics. 10. b) Explain the Atomic theory of Vaisesika. Casteism has been the main root of malfunctioning of democratic institutions. One can never change one's caste, leave it, or choose not to join it, although there are instances where a person may be expelled from their caste. In Indian terminology Caste System is known as Varna Vyavastha. Definition of Caste System. In 1500 BC, Aryans arrived in India and disregarded local groups. The definition of dominant caste has undergone some change over a period of time. (iii)

The caste system is a societal order built on religious and cultural norms in which the population of a state is divided into a hierarchy of classes. Religion, therefore, carries caste system which again produces subdivision of these castes. The caste system has exercised a profound influence on the economic activities of the people of India. Caste System is considered a closed system of stratification, which means that a persons social status is obligated to which caste they were born into. Caste systems promote beliefs in fate, destiny, and the will of a higher power, rather than promoting individual freedom as a value. Definition of Caste System. 7. Caste, the rural community, and the joint family have contributed to social and cultural solidarity in India, where differences of race and culture were likely to provoke perpetual conflict. Present status of caste in India is more a product of colonialism than of ancient Indian tradition. How religion plays an important role to formulate Indian society. False c. Can't say. Caste system is based on the ideas of high birth and low birth.

The Colonialism brought about the following changes in the caste system:During the colonial period the institution of the caste system underwent major changes. These are sustained and regulated by social institutions and social relationships. The caste system is the antithesis of democracy. of Indian sociology.In this course the learners will be introduced to the concepts like class, caste, gender, race, religion and language, and their significance in the study of the Indian society. The society of India is distinguished by caste classification, agrarian structure, diversity of religions, rural urban migration, as well as the refusal to modify traditions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Caste no longer restricts newly valued individual freedom. CASTE AND THE CASTE SYSTEM A population is made up of inter-related classes and communities.

i. Caste system is not in the process of abolition but is making adequate adjustment with modern changes. Caste system sociology definition. (ii) The census conducted under the direction of Herbert Risley in 1901 CE sought to collect information on the social hierarchy of caste i.e. Changes in the restrictions regarding marriage. The caste system in India should undergo major reforms in the social arena so that unjustified discrimination and abuse is eliminated. A person who lived in a caste society was socialized to accept his or her social standing. Loosely, it means that in some societies, the opportunities you have access to depend on the family you happened to be born into. b. The Brahmins are placed at the top of the hierarchy and are regarded as pure or supreme. It means that the people of the same caste belonging to the same race. position of each caste in the rank or order. Decline in the superiority of upper caste. a. The only visible change is in the attitude of different castes to rise in the caste hierarchy and gain social prestige ( Read Sanskritization). This is because there are studies in which it is observed that castes are also equally important as class. one can't change his own caste system by can change the class system & can be a member of many classes at the same time. Through the caste system the aboriginal tribes have been gradually absorbed into 1) Modern Education: Modern education plays a vital role in diminishing the importance of Caste System in Indian Society Modern education is based upon secular principles and domestic values. The two systems differ in the ease of social mobility, the relative importance of achieved and ascribed statuses, and the extent to which each restricts interaction among people considered unequal (Ferrante 2011:204). The factors affecting Caste System are as follows. c. Only a. d. Both a & b. To understand how the system has come to be what it is today, one has to go back through the pages of Solution The institution of caste underwent major changes during the colonial period. He viewed that Indian sociology is that specialized branch which stands at the confluence of lndology and sociology and which he advocates at the right type of mix prerequisite to the understanding of Indian sociology. Definition of Caste System.

6. It is because of media, education and modern means of communication available to the people. Definitions of Caste. Visions of Social Change in India. The British administrators tried to understand the complexities of caste in an effort to leam how to govern the country efficiently. Introduction to the Caste System in India: The system of caste is said to have originated in India though the exact origin of caste system cannot be traced. 10. A sociologist would define caste as a hereditary, endogamous, and usually localized group having a traditional association with an occupation and a particular position in the local hierarchy of caste. Classical sociology also tended to simplify the complex reality of caste as a typical case of traditional social order. It is a rigid system which arranges persons into Classes or Social Strata. Obstacle to Social Progress:-Caste system does not allow changes to be introduced in society. The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like ones profession became hereditary, resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Whereas class can be changed quiet easily. What are the values of Indian culture?Diversity.Pride.Innovativeness.Adaptability.Harmony.Modesty.Light-heartedness.